Security has always been a core concept in the building of an institutionalized system of international relations. The UN Charter made of it its backbone. This security, the Charter’s security, was closely related to peace. Both concepts appear together in twenty-nine out of the thirty-two occasions in which they are mentioned in the Charter. This link of security to peace, provides security with a positive energy, accentuated when peace is related to freedom, justice, or development. On the other hand, the Charter’s security was-and it is-a collective security, in spite of the limits imposed on it by the Council decision-making process.

The security that is the core concept of the new order prefers to be termed “democratic”, “energetic”, “ecological”, “economic” or “demographic”-which insists on the perception that we are living a high risk society-to its former link to peace, justice, freedom or development. In addition, it is a positional security: it is “my” or “our” security-the North’s security, the US and its clients’ security-that reacts against “their” threat (the South’s threat, the axis of evil one), caused by terrorism, drug trafficking, irregular immigration waves or the possession of arms that are only in good hands if they are in our hands.

This outline reinforces the return to an individual and groupal self-preservation to the detriment of the UN Charter. The US and their client states are entitled, as it is said, to protect “their” security, where they think it is endangered, by making recourse to the means they chose, including recourse to armed force. Therefore, blacklisting, so loved by the American Administration as a means to discredit the others, is not surprising. The goal is to get the others socially and legally excluded so that they become the target of the US and their client states use of force without provoking negative reactions or scandals. The document on the national security strategy of the US (2002) even makes of the Rogue State a category.

Nevertheless, in democratic countries, the first victims are individual and collective rights, public freedoms, judicial guarantees, transparent and plural information, restriction in the use of repressive force…

Military Supremacy and Readiness to Use Force

The US looks for a supremacy that avoids any kind of competition, prevents policies against it and fights against any tendency of its allies to deviate from it. The republican majority wants less State, even less diplomacy, but an increment in Defense budget. President Clinton had foreseen these risks when he vetoed the Foreign Operations Appropriations Bill (H.R. 2606), that meant a drastic budget cut to the Department of State. “By denying America a decent investment in diplomacy, this bill suggests we should meet threats to our security with our military might alone… “.

There is a propensity to use military power within what Marcelo G. Kohen has denominated a culture of force. As it had happened in Kosovo and Afghanistan, in Iraq the US disdained the UN Charter and the competences of the SC under Ch. VII. However, in contrast with what happened in Kosovo (where one could claim a humanitarian intervention) or Afghanistan (reaction against terror), the reasons to intervene in Iraq (possession of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism networks) have been perceived as a pretext to remove a hostile regime and replace it by a friendly one (shall we call it democratic?.) that allows Washington to deploy its military power to control energetic resources and to intimidate those that in the agitated Middle East neighbourhood react against Washington’s dictates.

The mentioned document on US national security strategy (2002) widens the notion of self-defence so as to accommodate, it says, the concept of imminent threat to the capabilities and objectives of today’s adversaries, in the first place terrorists and the States that shelter them. “Our best defense is a good offense”, argues President Bush. It must be said that however flexible, the concept of self-defence cannot include, as it is claimed, situations in which a presumed enemy’s bad intention is assimilated into a specific, precise and aggressive decision. The fight against terrorism leads to pre-emptive action which finally becomes applicable to any threats to what the American Administration considers its vital interests. Furthermore, pre-emptive action becomes applicable to any hegemonic or imperial plan. The fact that self­d-efence has not been invoked to invade Iraq, allows us to suggest that even for the Bush Administration the doctrine of the “pre-emptive intervention” is susceptible of being the axis of an Imperial Order or a new Hegemonic IL; it cannot be the expression of the IL in force, which is based on the principles of the UN Charter.

Different people interpret high security fencing differently, yet this is usually a combination of security panes, wire fencing fabric, topped with barbed wire, razor wire or other enhanced security fencing wire. High security fencing is usually at least 8 feet tall, and three strands barbed wire top it. Other forms of high safety hurdles include anti climb mesh, welded wire, expanded metal, electrification, wall spikes and spiked picket steel fences. When one is considering installing this kind of a fence, it is always advisable that they involve a fence installation specialist who will offer additional advice depending on the premises to fence off.

Users of high security fencing
The primary users of high security fencing are correctional institutions that use a combination of any of the relevant materials. On the other hand, you will find federal government facilities and military bases using these kinds of fencing options along with anti ram systems. The other facilities that use this kind of fencing are airports, power stations, fuel depots and chemical industrial plants. Sometimes, you will find local courthouses using the fences.

Developing a high defence fence system
When one is developing a high security fencing plan, and want to control the degree of security that they require within the fenced area, they will often times begin with a high fence. An ideal high security hedge installed at an airport will be 8 foot high and have three strands of barbed wire, video surveillance and a control access system that use card in card out mode. On the other hand, correctional facilities will add anti climb mesh, concertina wire, on site guards and man traps to enhance the security system within the facility. Nuclear, government and sensitive military facilities will use all the mentioned facilities and add fence shaker systems, cable reinforcement and infrared devices to enhance the security system.

A typical homeowner will only require a 6-foot high privacy fence, which also acts as a high security evade for the home. Ideally, they are only trying to stop intrusion. A gated community will offer barriers to traffic, but will minimally deter pedestrian intrusion. The other common kind of high defence fencing is chain link, and this goes as high as 6 feet or lower, however even when used along with barbed wire, the fencing industry professional do not quite consider this as snooty security trellis, simply because of the lower height. For a fence to be considered a high security one, then it must be at least 8 foot high according to fencing industry specifications.

When it comes to high defence fencing, what matters most is the materials combination, and it can be antiterrorism, have additional surveillance products, anti ram, all integrated together to offer maximum security. All the above motioned products need to be combined with an access control system along with a lofty security environment specified for each project. Today high defence fencing is in high demand more than ever before, and any institution and or public facility must protect itself from intruders.

1. Introduction

Computers and the Internet have become indispensable for homes and organisations alike. The dependence on them increases by the day, be it for household users, in mission critical space control, power grid management, medical applications or for corporate finance systems. But also in parallel are the challenges related to the continued and reliable delivery of service which is becoming a bigger concern for organisations. Cyber security is at the forefront of all threats that the organizations face, with a majority rating it higher than the threat of terrorism or a natural disaster.

In spite of all the focus Cyber security has had, it has been a challenging journey so far. The global spend on IT Security is expected to hit $120 Billion by 2017 [4], and that is one area where the IT budget for most companies either stayed flat or slightly increased even in the recent financial crises [5]. But that has not substantially reduced the number of vulnerabilities in software or attacks by criminal groups.

The US Government has been preparing for a “Cyber Pearl Harbour” [18] style all-out attack that might paralyze essential services, and even cause physical destruction of property and lives. It is expected to be orchestrated from the criminal underbelly of countries like China, Russia or North Korea.

The economic impact of Cyber crime is $100B annual in the United states alone [4].

There is a need to fundamentally rethink our approach to securing our IT systems. Our approach to security is siloed and focuses on point solutions so far for specific threats like anti viruses, spam filters, intrusion detections and firewalls [6]. But we are at a stage where Cyber systems are much more than just tin-and-wire and software. They involve systemic issues with a social, economic and political component. The interconnectedness of systems, intertwined with a people element makes IT systems un-isolable from the human element. Complex Cyber systems today almost have a life of their own; Cyber systems are complex adaptive systems that we have tried to understand and tackle using more traditional theories.

2. Complex Systems – an Introduction

Before getting into the motivations of treating a Cyber system as a Complex system, here is a brief of what a Complex system is. Note that the term “system” could be any combination of people, process or technology that fulfils a certain purpose. The wrist watch you are wearing, the sub-oceanic reefs, or the economy of a country – are all examples of a “system”.

In very simple terms, a Complex system is any system in which the parts of the system and their interactions together represent a specific behaviour, such that an analysis of all its constituent parts cannot explain the behaviour. In such systems the cause and effect can not necessarily be related and the relationships are non-linear – a small change could have a disproportionate impact. In other words, as Aristotle said “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. One of the most popular examples used in this context is of an urban traffic system and emergence of traffic jams; analysis of individual cars and car drivers cannot help explain the patterns and emergence of traffic jams.

While a Complex Adaptive system (CAS) also has characteristics of self-learning, emergence and evolution among the participants of the complex system. The participants or agents in a CAS show heterogeneous behaviour. Their behaviour and interactions with other agents continuously evolving. The key characteristics for a system to be characterised as Complex Adaptive are:

The behaviour or output cannot be predicted simply by analysing the parts and inputs of the system
The behaviour of the system is emergent and changes with time. The same input and environmental conditions do not always guarantee the same output.
The participants or agents of a system (human agents in this case) are self-learning and change their behaviour based on the outcome of the previous experience

Complex processes are often confused with “complicated” processes. A complex process is something that has an unpredictable output, however simple the steps might seem. A complicated process is something with lots of intricate steps and difficult to achieve pre-conditions but with a predictable outcome. An often used example is: making tea is Complex (at least for me… I can never get a cup that tastes the same as the previous one), building a car is Complicated. David Snowden’s Cynefin framework gives a more formal description of the terms [7].

Complexity as a field of study isn’t new, its roots could be traced back to the work on Metaphysics by Aristotle [8]. Complexity theory is largely inspired by biological systems and has been used in social science, epidemiology and natural science study for some time now. It has been used in the study of economic systems and free markets alike and gaining acceptance for financial risk analysis as well (Refer my paper on Complexity in Financial risk analysis here [19]). It is not something that has been very popular in the Cyber security so far, but there is growing acceptance of complexity thinking in applied sciences and computing.

3. Motivation for using Complexity in Cyber Security

IT systems today are all designed and built by us (as in the human community of IT workers in an organisation plus suppliers) and we collectively have all the knowledge there is to have regarding these systems. Why then do we see new attacks on IT systems every day that we had never expected, attacking vulnerabilities that we never knew existed? One of the reasons is the fact that any IT system is designed by thousands of individuals across the whole technology stack from the business application down to the underlying network components and hardware it sits on. That introduces a strong human element in the design of Cyber systems and opportunities become ubiquitous for the introduction of flaws that could become vulnerabilities [9].

Most organisations have multiple layers of defence for their critical systems (layers of firewalls, IDS, hardened O/S, strong authentication etc), but attacks still happen. More often than not, computer break-ins are a collision of circumstances rather than a standalone vulnerability being exploited for a cyber-attack to succeed. In other words, it’s the “whole” of the circumstances and actions of the attackers that cause the damage.

Modern urban living is not without its dangers, many inner city areas are suffering from ever increasing levels of violent crime, police are stretched to the limit trying to keep the streets safe and the law seems to favour the criminal over the victim in most cases. If you are concerned for your own safety and are considering some form of defence personal pepper spray guns could just be the answer.

Almost every civilised country does not allow the public to carry any form of weapons defence which could be deemed lethal, this means for those who are looking for a way to secure their own defence personal weapons are not an option in most cases. However, an increasingly common form of non-lethal weapons defence is pepper spray. For many people who proactively secure their own defence personal pepper spray guns are the ideal option.

Pepper guns are discreet, easily concealed and very simple to operate. They are used to administer a non-lethal dose of pepper based liquid directly into the face of any attacker, resulting in temporary blindness, panic and disorientation. Pepper spray is a very passive form of weapons defence, never used as a direct attack, simply administered to allow the victim time to escape and avoid the actions of their attacker.

Although the actual legal situation is somewhat grey regarding this kind of self defence personal pepper guns are often deemed as relatively harmless, and are unlikely to find the user facing any legal action taken against them, although it should be noted that just because using pepper spray for weapons defence is not strictly illegal in many countries, the use of this kind of weapon could lead to the user facing assault charges if it is deemed that the pepper spray was used inappropriately.

As a discreet form of weapons defence, pepper spray is easily concealed in a pocket or shoulder bag; ready for instant use should it be required. Applicators and guns come in a variety of shapes and sizes, from a tiny aerosol type can to a large gun assembly complete with trigger and stock. The aerosol form is often a use once a discard type of product, whilst the gun type can be refilled and used many times. A major advantage of the gun form of weapons defence is that they can be loaded with water filled tests cartridges so that they can be tested from time to time and ensure that they will be functioning properly when they are needed.

If you are serious about your own defence personal pepper spray may be the perfect option for you. A suitably effective non-lethal weapons defence that is relatively inexpensive, easy to carry and incredibly effective when used properly.

If you reside in a nation that boasts of a strong army base and the latest defence munitions than you are one of those lucky ones, who do not need to worry about their security issues. Strong Defence force loaded with an array of latest technology weapons is enough to combat attacks for the rivals. A strong defense force can only be build with well trained defence personnel and the latest arms and ammunition.

Everybody wants to live a peaceful life and fear to face the consequences of a war. It is the duty of the nation to provide absolute security to all its citizens. After the 9/11 incident, that happened to one of the most powerful nation like America. Almost every country’s prime concerns have shifted to the most important issue – National Security. With the context of security, the focus automatically comes down on the issue of ammunition or defence munitions that include firearms, artilleries, bombs, missiles, warheads, and mines (landmines, naval mines, and anti-personnel mines). These ammunition are developed in the laboratories and than manufactured in munitions factories. The modern munitions are loaded with the latest technological advancements that help the defence personnel to combat the opponents vigorously. Such combat munitions are very intelligently designed and requite trained people to handle them.

The invention of pyrotechnic munitions is latest discovery that enables the user to experience a greater control on the weapon by redirecting or incapacitating the targets. The technique involved in this type of weapon allows the operator to engage a variable delay system which enables him/her to select the desired engagement distance for the munition. The weapon operator can use different operational ranges for the target, all he got do is manually select a specific delay time prior to deployment of the weapon. Simply, pyrotechnic munitions are those weapons that can be deployed at a selected time and the user can specific the delay time prior to the detonation.

Possessing such high-end latest ammunition is a matter of pride for any nation. Another vital aspect that must be considered important is a definite way to procure safe storage facilities for these munitions. They are very agile and require constant monitoring even when they are not in use. Hence, it is mandatory to take special attention towards the storage needs to these hi-tech equipments.

Denis Ferranti Group is a family owned engineering firm that has been providing technologically advanced equipments and services to its reputed clients. It has been developing variety of ammunition for the Defence forces.

https://www.foxz24.net/

Women’s Self Defence – Be Aware Of It

Womens self defence is a critical issue for the modern woman. Self defence issues require today’s woman to be ever-vigilant for her safety and security. It is possible for a woman to take measures to secure her position in the world and to eliminate unnecessary risks to her safety while at the same time enjoying a full, unimpeded life. It is very common for women to enjoy active lives, having full-time jobs with significant responsibility and prestige.

A woman functioning at a high level of responsibility and activity often chooses to travel as part of her job. In that capacity, she is exposed to many different situations in which she must keep her eyes and ears open to remain safe. It is wise for women exposed to situations which may compromise their security to be aware of proper self defence techniques to ensure that they do not find themselves vulnerable to attack while travelling or working alone.

Women Can Defend Themselves

While women are thoroughly capable of practising self defence on their own behalf, it is wise for them to seek instruction on the most effective strategies to ensure that they are protected from any known threat. It is prudent for a woman to be in the position of defending herself whenever possible. There are simple key strategies available that women can learn for use when fending off an unwanted attack or eluding an unwanted pursuer. There are also common sense techniques which may help protect a woman working or travelling alone from harm or surprises.

Women should always make themselves aware of their surroundings when walking or driving alone. It is important to be alert to anyone in their general area, and how they are acting. It is important to walk purposefully to exude an appearance of authority and self assurance. Women carrying purses or parcels should take care to ensure that the items cannot be easily snagged by other persons in their general vicinity. It is also important to refrain from carrying items of obvious value that might attract undue attention, including flashy jewelry or clothing.

Simple Womens Self Defence Techniques

There are a number of simple self defence strategies that any person can use if necessary. One useful stance for self defence is for a woman to walk carrying her keys poking out between her fingers like small sticks as she holds the key ring in her palm for use in case she has to defend herself physically. The keys can easily be used to scratch someone or even to injure an attacker’s eyes if necessary. Another helpful maneuver is to trip the assailant while being accosted. Both of these suggestions should be used as the woman is fleeing her attacker, to buy her a little time to get away or draw attention to the attack.

Womens Self Defence Is Important

Womens Self Defence should be a primary consideration for the modern woman. Attempting self defence is not a pleasant prospect. Being informed about womens self defence techniques is the best way to be ready in the event that the unthinkable happens. Being aware of the surrounding environment, being careful about what is being carried, and being ready to assume a defensive position in the event of an unwanted act are simple ways a woman can protect herself.

There is a clone of Defence Center Malware which is named as Windows Defence. It looks like a security application but actually it is a typical rogue tool. It is promoted on several misleading websites including windows-defence.com and they say that it is legitimate software. Other than websites it also spread via Trojan and other Malware programs. The windows defence secretly enters into the victim’s computer and do all the pre-defined malicious activity including those tons of counterfeit security alerts. Few examples are:

System Alert! Your Computer is infected!”

Windows has detected spyware infection! It is recommended to use special antispyware tools to prevent data loss. Windows will now download and install the most up-to-date antispyware for you. Click here to protect your computer from spyware!

This software has nothing which can detect spyware infection or other infections. These alerts are false and made only in order to make user purchase the product. It is a broadline scam and you should never give money to these scammers and under no circumstances pay for This software!

Windows Defence annoys people by pop-ups and this brings additional trouble like hijacked web browser and disabled security apps. It will be installed into your system without your permission and all its activities are suspicious. So you should know how to get rid of windows Defence.

There are two ways Windows Defence can be removed from your system:

Manually step by step Removal
Automatic Easy Removal

The manual steps involve dozens of instructions to follow and if you do it manually, it will take much time. You have to block windows defence sites first. Then you need to stop and remove the malicious processes. Next you have to locate and delete windows defence registry entries. Finally you have to detect and delete other associated files.

If you think that it is tough to go through manual process then you are right because if you do mistakes, your system will become unstable and you may loss all your data present on that system. So you need to go through the automatic and easy windows Removal and for this you need to use a strong professional application which should be powerful enough to find and remove every single file of this application completely from the system and fix all the problems that started after installing the Windows Defence. PC Health Advisor is the ideal one that will be perfect to remove Windows Defence from your pc and also repairing all the infected files as well as system settings including those vital registry settings. It will fully optimize your PC for best performance and your pc becomes faster than before and you will experience it yourself just after you scan and repair all those problems using PC Health Advisor.

The US has established a program of Security Cooperation with foreign sovereign nations who share common interest and values to meet common defence goals. Island Consulting has learnt that the Security Programmes must be authorised by the US Foreign Assistance Act and, as amended, by the Arms Export Control Act to enable the Department of Defence, or commercial contractor, to provide defence services and articles in support of national policies and objectives.

The two key programs within the security cooperation brief are Foreign Military Sales and International Military Education and Training, (FMS & IMET). The FMF program is managed by the Department of Defence on a not for profit basis. The beneficial country in question has grant aid allocated which may be “spent” against the acquisition of US defence articles in support of security cooperation.
When required defence articles or services have been identified, in the end user country, the countries representative must provide a Letter of Request normally through the local US Embassy Office of Defence Cooperation representative.

The reply could be in the form of Price and Availability information or a Letter of Offer and Acceptance. If the requesting country accepts the LOA the US will then provide the material or services offered.

A wide range of articles may be requested through the FMF program including such things as; Electronic Defence Systems, Logistics systems, Support equipment, and training. Training in US military schools can also be available particularly where items being acquired are similar to those items being transferred through the FMF programme.

As a separate line of Defence Cooperation countries can be offered support for IMET International Military Education and Training, after making the appropriate request as for FMF.

US companies operating in the defence field can benefit their European business by taking advantage of these Cooperation programs and implementing IT and Defence systems supported by FMF.
It is interesting to see how the US Foreign Assistance is requested at the Congress level as this gives an idea of the priorities assigned to individual recipient nations.

If we limit our interest to Central and eastern Europe we can see that the mature Western nations are understandably not offered direct assistance, but the former Eastern European nations have accrued considerable benefit as they bring their Defence infrastructure and systems more in line with western standards. Typically Hungary, Poland and the Czech republic have been beneficial recipients but this has now moved in favour of countries such as Bulgaria, Romania the Ukraine and most recently Turkey.
By way of example Island Consulting understands that in 2005 Bulgaria received approval for $6.9m, Romania $29m and Ukraine $3m whilst Turkey received $33.7m.

Island Consulting is an independent Research Consultancy giving your organisation business advantage in Government, Defence and Public Sector account research within Western Europe. Services include: Market Intelligence for ICT companies targeting Government, Defence and Public Sector accounts. If you are focusing on these customers Island Consulting can deliver specific market intelligence data to improve your business opportunities. Three key methodologies are employed to meet customers market intelligence requirements.

1.Meetings and interviews with MoD, Public Sector and Defence experts enables up to date information to be effectively collected for standard reports or customer specific requirements. 2. Dedicated data gathering includes opens source desk research augmented by direct follow up with the targeted accounts. 3. Telephone research is available for customer projects or sales campaigns.

Self Defence is the term used to describe a wide range of strategies and tactics in order to keep you safe. Self Defence should be considered as a continuum ranging from insuring that issues don’t arise all the way through dealing with the legalities and after effects of a situation. An effective self defence system must take into account the tactics required for different situations and also the environment

The key areas

Prevention Tactics – These are pre-planned approaches to self defence, this includes home alarms and security, planning your travel routes and understanding and taking action on the risks that exist.

Avoidance Tactics – These tactics cover situations such as being confronted with aggression or being targeted by street criminals or predators. The key tactics here are situational awareness, assertiveness, focus, verbal de-escalation strategies and decision making

Physical Escape Tactics – These set of tactics focus on the use of Physical force to ensure your safety. This includes breakaways, escapes from being held, defence against striking and striking in your own defence. Physical tactics must also include issues such as multiple attackers, tight spaces, ground defence and weapons.

Legal Considerations – An understanding of the legal view on self defence is important in a complete self defence solution. Interpretations can vary, but in general most observe the concept of reasonable force. The question that is considered is whether your actions were reasonable and in-line with the threat faced, and was the level of force appropriate. A simple guideline is always to be focused on escape, so the moment you can safely leave the scene you must. Self defence law also allows you act in the defence of others and property.

Environment is also a factor in an overall self defence plan, as risk and vulnerability may change with location.

The following considerations should be taken into account

At Home – As already mentioned home security such as alarms and appropriate locks on doors and windows should be considered, but other factors that should be taken into account include escape routes, secure rooms to retreat to, emergency communication and ensuring incidental weapons such as kitchen knives are not available to intruders

At Work – A significant amount of time is spent at work so you should also consider your safety while at work. Ensure you understand you company’s approach to dealing with security, do they vet staff, are your required to be alone with others, is there a risk from visitos or customers, does your work put you at risk. If any of these factors are a cause for concern action should be taken.

Socialising – A significant amount of crime happens around socialising, often alcohol is involved and security awareness can be lowered. These factors are very well understood by predators seeking to use these situations to their advantage.

Commuting – How you travel must also be a factor in self defence, make sure you understand the risk associated with types of transports and locations. Late night buses, trains and subways can be high risk. If you are travelling to a unfamiliar destination or using an unfamiliar route make sure you adequately understand the route and risk. Try to have an emergency get home plan, either someone you can call or the money for a taxi.

International Travel – When travelling to new countries we can find ourselves at risk. The experience can be unfamiliar and often overwhelming. Ports of entry are often targeted by unsavoury characters who want to take advantage of the confusion felt by new arrivals. Make sure to preplan you entry and know how you will leave the port before you arrive and consider organizing to be met and picked up by a trustworthy source. When booking accommodation make sure to assess the location and environment from a safety and risk perspective. In general but especially when on unfamiliar territory try not to show off valuables which might attract a predator.

In summary a complete self defence system must take provide you with the tactics to safe in various different situations and must also deal with the environments you inhabit.

Patrick cumiskey is the founder of Skiltful

It’s estimated that every minute someone is being assaulted in the world, whether it be for money, a nice jacket or just for the fun of it. With the crime rate increasing especially in the US, it makes sense to not only protect yourself, but your family too. Most situations can be avoided but for others you need to offer yourself the best defence possible so you are prepared for any future situations.

On the market today you will find many self defense products that are available to give you the best defence possible, inside or out. With prices being relatively cheap there really isn’t no excuse to not take precautions, you never know what lies in front of you.

So what kind of devices are we talking about? Well, one popular item is the police magnum pen This device looks like your standard writing pen but concealed within is a tiny pepper spray canister which is great against unsuspecting thieves. For women you can purchase a lipstick pepper spray that looks identical to your average lipstick unit which can spurt pepper spray in emergency situations.

Both are great devices to stun either a thief or intruder in the home giving you and your family valuable time to report to the police and get your family to safety.

With such a wide range of similar self defence devices available which are very affordable ranging from $5 to $10, you can be safe in the knowledge that you and your family are protected if an unfortunate event were to ever occur.